Coronavirus? Mama’s worried

I’m worried and I know you are too, because you happen to be lurking around reading virus and bacteria articles. Let’s go over our infectious disease and how they are transmitted etc for the sake of protecting our little ones and us.

Let’s dive into Infectious disease:

An infection is a condition in which pathogens invade the body. Diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms are called infectious diseases. Infectious diseases also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease resulting from the infection, presence and growth of pathogenic biological agents in an individual host organism.

Microorganisms are transmitted by several ways. Direct contact usually involves the spread of pathogens from one person to another through body contact such as touching, kissing, shaking hands or sexual intercourse. Indirect contact indicates an intermediary object harbors the microorganisms and carries them from an infected person to a new victim. Microorganism also can transfer from air, water, blood, food and vectors.

Drug resistance bacteria:

Antimicrobial drugs, such as antibiotics, have been successfully used to treat patients with bacterial and infectious diseases. Over time, however, many infectious organisms have adapted to the drugs designed to kill them, making the products less effective.  These microorganisms have the ability to transfer their resistance to future generations. These resistant organisms are transmitted into the environment through coughing, sneezing and direct contact.

Transmission of  Diseases:

Infectious diseases are very common diseases in clinic. They are usually transmitted from the reservoir of infection to a susceptible host by different routes. There are different classifications for ways of transmission. Here is one classification: 

 Direct 
o Direct contact
o Droplet spread
 Indirect 
o Airborne
o Vehicle
o Vector 

The first route is Direct Transmission. It means that microorganisms transmitted by direct contact or droplet spread. The direct contact involves immediate and direct transfer of agents of disease from person to person. The common examples include touching, kissing and sexual intercourse.  According the textbook microbiology an introduction, many diseases can be transmitted by direct contact, especially in the respiratory, digestive, genital systems. Some of the diseases are very common in clinic, such as the common cold, hepatitis A, measles, scarlet fever, and sexually transmitted diseases (syphilis, gonorrhea, and genital herpes). Direct contact is also the way to spread AIDS and infectious mononucleosis. Droplet transmission is microbes that spread from the source to the host. The distance between the sources to the host is within 1m (3 feet). The influenza, pneumonia, and pertussis are spread by this type of transmission. 

The other route of transmission is indirect contact transmission. It means an intermediary is needed for the transfer of an infectious agent from a reservoir to a host. The common example of intermediaries includes suspended air particles, nonliving objects or animate intermediaries, which includes Vehicle-borne transmission, vector-borne transmission, and airborne transmission.  Common vehicles are food, water, body fluids blood, handkerchiefs, bedding, or surgical scalpels. A vehicle may passively carry a pathogen such as food or water may carry hepatitis A virus. (Dicker ,2006).  Vector-borne transmission is that an animal or insect transport the infections agent. Transmission may occur by salivary fluid or other materials from biting on the skin through the wounded skin area. Example of vector transmission is mosquito spread Malaria.Victim is bitten by infected mosquito. Mosquito injects sporozoites into human. Parasites develop in the liver. When parasites finish maturation in the red blood cells and release gametes. Mosquito takes blood- including the parasite gametes. Fertilization and development of zygote happens within the mosquito vector.

Airborne transmission means the spread of agents of infection by droplet nuclei in dust that t ravel more than 1 meter from the reservoir to the host. The microbes are spread by droplets, which may be released from the mouth and nose during coughing and sneezing. Droplet nuclei are dried residues of less than 5 microns in size and remain in the air in a long time.  The Tuberculosis, Measles and Chickenpox are the examples of diseases transmitted by airborne transmission.

 

Statistics of Infectious Disease:

According to the National Center for Health Service which is part of the CDC and National Foundation of Infectious Diseases following statistics are up-to-date. The number of infections happen in a given year call incidence. Hepatitis is one of the infectious diseases in the United State (U.S). According to the CDC evaluation 17,000 new cases of hepatitis A occurred in the U.S. in 2010. In the U.S., it is appraised that 800,000 to 1.4 million people have chronic hepatitis B and in 2010, 38,000 new cases were diagnosed in the U.S. It is assessed that between 2.5 and 3.9 million people have chronic hepatitis C infections. Influenza and pneumonia are the droplet transmission type of infectious disease. About 36,000 people per year in the U.S. die from influenza and pneumonia. 

HIV and AIDS infection are spread by direct contact. According to the CDC each year in the U.S approximately 50,000 people are newly infected with HIV. The latest data available from CDC is that, in 2010 there were an estimated 47,500 new HIV infection in United State. According to the CDC data also shows that closely two third of these new infactions occurred in gay and bisexual men. Black / African American men and women were highly affected and their incidence rate was almost 8 times higher than Caucasian population. The numbers of new cases of sexually transmitted diseases reported in the U.S. in 2011 include: Human papillomavirus (HPV): about 14 million; Chlamydia: over 1.4 million; Gonorrhea: over 300,000; and Syphilis (primary and secondary): around 14,000.  

The airborne diseases are chickenpox, tuberculosis, and measles. The chickenpox vaccine has decreased the frequency of new cases of chickenpox in all age groups, especially in children ages 1 to 4 years. Tuberculosis has infected one-third of the world’s population. In 2011, nearly 11,000 new cases were reported in the U.S. Even though the measles vaccine is now available, in 2010 there were five new cases of German measles (rubella) and 63 cases of measles (rubeola) in the U.S.

 

 

 

The Negative related with Infectious diseases:

Global burden of infectious diseases:

About 15 million (>25%) of 57 million annual deaths worldwide are estimated to be related directly to infectious diseases; this figure does not include the additional millions of deaths that occur as a consequence of past infections (for example, streptococcal rheumatic heart disease), or because of complications associated with chronic infections, such as liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma in people infected with hepatitis B or C viruses(Fig. 2). 

The burden of morbidity (ill health) and mortality associated with infectious diseases falls most heavily on people in developing countries, and particularly on infants and children (about three million children die each year from malaria and diarrheal diseases alone). In developed nations, infectious disease mortality disproportionately affects indigenous and disadvantaged minorities.  (pic).

Vaccines provide safe, cost-effective, and efficient means of preventing illness, disability, and death from infectious diseases. Everyone should have a full access to health care services that is highly needed in this case. With the universe care coverage, people will obtain vaccines without being forced into poverty when paying for them. Thus prevention, treatment and financial risk protection will be achieved.

Drug Treatments:

Airbone

TB

Measles 

Chickenpox

Droplet

Influenza

Rubella

Meningococcal meningitis

 

Contact

Gastrointestinal, respiratory, skin, or wound infections that are drug-resistant

Acute diarrhea

Draining abscess

Impetigo

MRSA

 

Drug Treatment 

Airbone

TB

Measles 

Chickenpox

 

Tuberculosis

Most common TB drugs
If you have latent tuberculosis, you may need to take just one type of TB drug. Active tuberculosis, particularly if it’s a drug-resistant strain, will require several drugs at once. The most common medications used to treat tuberculosis include:
 

 Isoniazid
 Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)
 Ethambutol (Myambutol)
 Pyrazinamide

There’s some evidence that taking vitamin D during tuberculosis treatment enhances some of the effects of the drugs. More study is needed. 

Measles

No treatment can get rid of an established measles infection. However, some measures can be taken to protect vulnerable individuals who have been exposed to the virus. 

 Post-exposure vaccination. Nonimmunized people, including infants, may be given the measles vaccination within 72 hours of exposure to the measles virus, to provide protection against the disease. If measles still develops, the illness usually has milder symptoms and lasts for a shorter time.
 Immune serum globulin. Pregnant women, infants and people with weakened immune systems who are exposed to the virus may receive an injection of proteins (antibodies) called immune serum globulin. When given within six days of exposure to the virus, these antibodies can prevent measles or make symptoms less severe.

Medications

 Fever reducers. You or your child may also take over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) or naproxen (Aleve) to help relieve the fever that accompanies measles. Don’t give aspirin to children because of the risk of Reye’s syndrome — a rare but potentially fatal disease.
 Antibiotics. If a bacterial infection, such as pneumonia or an ear infection, develops while you or your child has measles, your doctor may prescribe an antibiotic.
 Vitamin A. People with low levels of vitamin A are more likely to have a more severe case of measles. Giving vitamin A may lessen the severity of the measles. It’s generally given as a large dose of 200,000 international units (IU) for two days.

 

Chickenpox

In otherwise healthy children, chickenpox typically requires no medical treatment. Your doctor may prescribe an antihistamine to relieve itching. But for the most part, the disease is allowed to run its course. 

If you’re at high risk of complications 
For people who have a high risk of complications from chickenpox, doctors sometimes prescribe medications to shorten the duration of the infection and to help reduce the risk of complications.
 

If you or your child falls into a high-risk group, your doctor may suggest an antiviral drug such as acyclovir (Zovirax) or another drug called immune globulin intravenous (IGIV). These medications may lessen the severity of the disease when given within 24 hours after the rash first appears. Other antiviral drugs, such as valacyclovir (Valtrex) and famciclovir (Famvir), also may lessen the severity of the disease, but they have been approved for use only in adults. In some cases, your doctor may recommend getting the chickenpox vaccine after exposure to the virus. This can prevent the disease or lessen its severity. 

Don’t give anyone with chickenpox — child or adult — any medicine containing aspirin because this combination has been associated with a condition called Reye’s syndrome. 

Treating complications 
If complications do develop, your doctor will determine the appropriate treatment. Treatment for skin infections and pneumonia may be with antibiotics. Treatment for encephalitis is usually with antiviral drugs. Hospitalization may be necessary.
 

Droplet

Influenza

Rubella

Meningococcal meningitis

 

 

Influenza

Antiviral medications with activity against influenza viruses are an important adjunct to influenza vaccine in the control of influenza.

 Influenza antiviral prescription drugs can be used to treatinfluenza or to prevent influenza.
 Two FDA-approved influenza antiviral medications are recommended for use in the United States during the 2012-2013 influenza season: oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) and zanamivir (Relenza®).
 Oseltamivir and zanamivir are chemically related antiviral medications known as neuraminidase inhibitors that have activity against both influenza A and B viruses.
 Antiviral resistance to oseltamivir and zanamivir among circulating influenza viruses is currently low, but this might change. Also, antiviral resistance can emerge during or after treatment in certain patients (e.g., immunosuppressed). 
o For information about antiviral drug resistance to influenza viruses and guidance on the use of influenza antiviral medications when antiviral resistance is suspected or documented this season, see Antiviral Drug-Resistance among Influenza Viruses.
o For weekly surveillance data on antiviral resistance this season, see the FluView U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report.

 

No treatment will shorten the course of rubella infection, and symptoms are so mild that treatment usually isn’t necessary. However, doctors often recommend isolation from others — especially pregnant women — during the infectious period. 

If you contract rubella while you’re pregnant, discuss the risks to your baby with your doctor. If you wish to continue your pregnancy, you may be given antibodies called hyperimmune globulin that can fight off the infection. This can reduce your symptoms but doesn’t eliminate the possibility of your baby developing congenital rubella syndrome. 

Support of an infant born with congenital rubella syndrome varies depending on the extent of the infant’s problems. Children with multiple complications may require early treatment from a team of specialists. 

Or——

Rubella (German Measles) Vaccination

Rubella vaccine (contained in MMR vaccine) can prevent this disease.

Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): MMR and MMRV

Meningococcal meningitis

 

 

Drug Ressistance Bacteria:

 

Drug Resistance to bacteria is harmful to an individuals health, wellness and a threat to society. Drug Resistance can be caused by drugs or antibiotics used when a person is ill and the bacteria that causes the illness resists the dug because of the continuous use. The other reason drug resistance to bacteria is caused is if the bodies genetic blueprint rejects the concentration of the medicine. Bacteria can be harmful to any individual if left untreated for too long and can be even more critical if the bacteria resists the drugs or treatment because of the transmission into society which can lead to an epidemic. Drug resistant bacteria can become an issue if the concentrated forms of drugs do not work on the individual or if they are not prone to drugs because of their genetic makeup which can lead to not having a greater form of concentrated medicine for the illness. Therefore these types of situations can lead to the growth of bacteria spread of pathogens. According to the “Harvard Health Blog” written by Lori W. Tishler, explains the few types of bacteria identified by the CDC which are marked as a threat, which are “clostridium difficile”, “enterobacteriaceae”, and “neisseria gonorrhoeae”. These are all common bacteria that causes diarrhea, in which normal living flora in the body can transmit into other places of the body and the common UTI and sexually transmitted diseases. Tishler states in her article that the only way to avoid the resistance of medicine is by hand washing to prevent the spread of pathogens and infections. Also to be mindful of the drugs an individual is taking for their illness and to ask the caregiver about the drug they are taking and the effects of it. Another point that Tishler stated in her article was about decreasing the amounts of antibiotics repeatedly taken, being alert about vaccinations and the use of antibiotics in our foods such as meat and dairy products. 

 

Resources

 

Infectious Diseases:

Dicker , R. (2006). Principles of epidemiology in public health practice. (3th ed.) Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/osels/scientific_edu/ss1978/SS1978.pdf

Statistics:

http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/library/slideSets/index.html.

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditons/infectious-disease /Statistics

Bad Effects of Infectious Diseases:

Click to access nature_to_web.pdf

http://www.who.int/whr/en/

Drug Resistance Bacteria:

“Drug-resistant bacteria a growing health problem – Harvard Health Publications.” Health Information and Medical Information – Harvard Health Publications. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2013. <http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/drug-resistant-bacteria-a-growing-health-problem-201309176677&gt;.

© 2020 mama&childblogs

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.